スイス・カジノ依存症対策 「ギャンブル行為、経過、依存と結果の実証的研究」(10)

スイスにおけるギャンブルとギャンブル依存症-ギャンブル行為、経過、依存と結果の実証的研究

BASS(Büro für arbeites-und sozialpolitische Studien)(訳: 労働と社会政策研究所)
スイス連邦ゲーミング委員会および連邦法務局の委任を受けて
Kilian Künzi, Tobias Fritschi, Theres Egger 共著 ベルン 2004年11月15日
日本語訳 平沼由紀子
用語/名称について(訳:)とあるのは意味を訳したもので、正式な用語/名称ではない。

今後の見通し

産業化の進んだ西洋社会において、ゲーミング市場は重要な一産業と捉えられている。規制緩和が進み、あらたな歳入の路が求められるなか、成長産業でもある。
ゲーミング市場の拡大にともない、ギャンブル依存症に関連した問題もまた増加する、これについては疑問の余地はない。
政府がゲーミング市場に、許認可という形で関与し税金を徴収する限り、依存症を増やすことにも潜在的に関与していることを忘れてはならない。

ギャンブルとギャンブル依存症に関するこの研究報告は、様々な解釈に対して開かれている。
問題について、数量的評価と質的評価をともに提供することで、数々の現象を比較し易くしており、更なる発展的な研究や、さまざまな介入や対策が、この研究をベースとしておこなわれるであろう。

■カジノについては、その数がいまだ多すぎること、減らすことにより経営状態が向上し、それによってカジノがより質の高い social conceptを実施できるようになることを希望する、というのが、インタビューを受けた専門家たちの見解であった。

■カジノ外のゲーミングマシンは、深刻な問題とみなされている。2005年4月1日の新法実施にともない、バーや遊技場から、旧来許可されていたマシンが撤去されて以降どうなるか、結果が待たれるところである。
それらが撤去されても、他の、州によっては許可されているマシン(偶然性によるゲームではなく技能で遊ぶタイプ)やlotteryの販売機などがとって代わるだけだ、という予測もある。
それらのマシンも、ゲーミングマシンと同程度の依存性があるとされている。

■Lotteries ActとCasino Actが分離しているところにも問題点がある。lotteryの販売機の普及にもかかわらず、その依存症対策については、Lotteries Act で重要事として扱われていない、という批判がある。

■依存症の予防策も改善が必要である。法令に反映されている国の方針は、事前の積極的対応であり、依存症の予防としての早期発見である(これに関する追加規定は2004年10月1日より実施)。
専門家からは他のアプローチも提案されている。何よりも先ず、成人を目前にした若者を対象に、第一次的な予防をすべき、という意見である。

それに加え、ギャンブラーにresponsible gambling(訳:責任あるギャンブルの方法)を教えるための指針の必要性も言われている。
二次的な予防策の向上のため、ギャンブル上の問題を抱える人々に対し、依存性物質以外の依存症に関する情報の供給を増やすこと、カウンセリングサービスやセラピーの機会および情報量の拡大が求められている。

カジノに対しては,ギャンブルにともなうリスクについて人々の関心を高める役割がいっそう求められる。入場禁止措置は効果的な対策であるが、ある一定期間中の利用回数を制限する、など、さまざまな段階の措置を導入するなどの改善が可能である。
ヨーロッパ全土に渉る入場制限のシステムの確立にも力を入れるべきである。

また他の予防策として、過剰なギャンブルを予防するための機能をマシンに搭載することや, lotteryおよびbettingの規制強化などが提案されている。
予防策に関する財政状況については批判的な意見もあった。

カジノIRジャパン

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