スイス・カジノ依存症対策 「ギャンブル行為、経過、依存と結果の実証的研究」(11)

スイスにおけるギャンブルとギャンブル依存症-ギャンブル行為、経過、依存と結果の実証的研究

BASS(Büro für arbeites-und sozialpolitische Studien)(訳: 労働と社会政策研究所)
スイス連邦ゲーミング委員会および連邦法務局の委任を受けて
Kilian Künzi, Tobias Fritschi, Theres Egger 共著 ベルン 2004年11月15日
日本語訳 平沼由紀子
用語/名称について(訳:)とあるのは意味を訳したもので、正式な用語/名称ではない。

今後の研究課題

■ギャンブル依存症の予防については、当然、より発展的な研究が求められる。
この報告書の著者らは、カジノのsocial conceptのへの気遣いから、数人の専門家からの情報に、その研究範囲をとどめざるを得なかった。カウンセリングサービスから提供された情報によると、サービスの利用者のうちわずか3%しかカジノ側の確認を取れなかった。
この数字の低さの原因について解明の努力がなされるべきである。
カジノにとっての ”とても良い顧客” と、ギャンブルの問題を(潜在的に)抱えている人の区別は多くの場合、曖昧であるため、カジノおよびその従業員に対し、ギャンブル依存症の予防策を取るよう求めることには問題点が多い。

■スイスにおけるギャンブル依存症の広がりを、広範囲に渡り捉える研究も望まれるところである。そのような調査が前回なされたのは1998年で、その後の6年間にゲーミング市場にはかなりの変化が起きているからである。
新たなCasino Actが実施される2005年4月1日も、転換点として念頭に置くべきである。
新法下では、偶然性に基づかない、技能で遊ぶゲーミングマシンのみが、カジノ外で許可されることになるが、特に、これらのマシンの認可の判断材料という観点から、このあらたな規制の影響を追い、分析するべきであろう。

■5年ごとに19,000人という大きなサンプルで実施されているSwiss Health Sensus(訳:スイス保健統計)の、ギャンブルに関する部門を拡充することにより、有意義な発見が期待できる。
次回の調査は2007年である。

■我々に開かれている方法のうち最低限行うべきは、今回、質問表を送ったカウンセリングサービスへ、数年後、再び送付することである。これをもとに、我々が今回の研究で確立したモデルを用い、ギャンブル依存症の有病率を推定することができる。
ギャンブル依存症の問題を、より系統的に長期に渡り、(重要な情報源総てからデータを確保し)モニタリングするシステムの開発と実施も、推し進めるべき道の一つである。

■コストと恩恵に関する分析に関しては、ギャンブル依存症による、無形の社会的コスト(共存症、自殺傾向、人間関係の問題、社会的孤立)の数量化も待たれる。
ギャンブルの種類ごとにコストと恩恵を対比させることも、スイスにおけるギャンブルのコストと恩恵の全体像の解明に役立つであろう。
最後に、ゲーミング市場と他の商品市場の間の代替効果についての分析も、強く求められている。

カジノIRジャパン

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