スイス・カジノ依存症対策 「ギャンブル行為、経過、依存と結果の実証的研究」(3)

スイスにおけるギャンブルとギャンブル依存症-ギャンブル行為、経過、依存と結果の実証的研究

BASS(Büro für arbeites-und sozialpolitische Studien)(訳: 労働と社会政策研究所)
スイス連邦ゲーミング委員会および連邦法務局の委任を受けて
Kilian Künzi, Tobias Fritschi, Theres Egger 共著 ベルン 2004年11月15日
日本語訳 平沼由紀子
用語/名称について(訳:)とあるのは意味を訳したもので、正式な用語/名称ではない。

ギャンブルをする人々がどのようににギャンブルの機会を利用しているか

統計から、様々なタイプのgamblerが、様々な場でギャンブルの機会を見いだし利用するさまが伺える。

■連邦法務局が2002年に執り行った人口統計(名称:BJ2002) によると、18歳以上のスイス人の56%が、日常的に国内のlotteryを購入する。そのうち15%が少なくとも週に1回、12%が月に1回購入、29%が月に1回未満だった。また、スイス人の7%が国外のlotteryも同時に利用している。

■スイス国内の成人人口のうち43%が、今まで1回以上カジノに入場したことがある。

いわゆる frequent gamblers (週に1回程度ギャンブルを行う者)についての以下のデータは、Swiss Health Sensus 2002 (訳:スイス保健統計)のものである。

■スイス在住の成人人口のうち、121万人または21.2%がfrequent gamblerである。

国内人口全体における分布をみると、スイス国内の、フランス語およびイタリア語圏で、ギャンブルがより浸透している傾向がみられる。

■そのうちの最大グループである118万人または20.6%が、ナンバーロト、Toto-X、Sporttotoもしくは類似した スイス内外のlotteriesを日常的に利用している。

■32,000~47,000人(成人人口の0.56%~0.82%)が週1回前後、スロットマシーンを利用する。そのうちの70%(21,000~33,500人)がカジノ外での利用である。

■15,500~26,000人(成人人口の0.27%~0.46%)が週1回前後、カジノまたはspa casino(Bカジノ)を訪れる。

■26,000~39,500人(成人人口の0.46%~0.69%)が、Tiercé などの競馬に毎週賭けている。この種のギャンブル、競馬は特にフランス語圏で人気がある。

■frequent gamblersの内訳は、男性が多く57%、女性が43%であった。全ての年齢層に渡っていたが、lotteriesおよびbettingの利用者は50歳以上が最も多く、スロットマシーンやカジノを訪れるのはより若い層で、その40%が35歳未満であった。また、驚くべきことに、年金受給者が22%とかなりの割合を占めている。

■lotteriesおよびbettingを毎週、利用する人の4分の3以上はスイス人で、外国人は4分の1弱である。ゲーミングマシンについては、それぞれ3分の2と3分の1であった。これより、成人人口全体の18%である外国人は、スイス人に比べ、毎週ギャンブルを行う傾向が強いといえる。

■教育水準を切り口にすると、あらゆる層にわたり、frequent gamblerは分布している。が、統計的には、教育水準の高い人々に比べ、低い人々の方にfrequent gamblerが多い。所得についても同様で、あらゆる層にfrequent gamblerは存在する。frequent gamblerのなかで中間層が占めるパーセンテージは、人口全体に占める割合とほぼ等しい。一方で、低所得者層は明らかに高め、高所得者層は明らかに低いパーセンテージを示した。

■依存性物質の摂取との関連をみると、frequent gamblerが摂取するアルコール量および喫煙は、成人人口全体を対象とした場合に比べ多いという傾向が明らかであった。違法ドラッグについてはそのような傾向はなかった。

■精神的な健康と満足という観点からみると、lotteriesおよびbettingを利用するfrequent gamblerは、成人人口全体に比べていかなる差も認められないが、スロットマシンやカジノを利用する人々はやや低い評価を示した。

カジノIRジャパン

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