スイス・カジノ依存症対策 「ギャンブル行為、経過、依存と結果の実証的研究」(6)

スイスにおけるギャンブルとギャンブル依存症-ギャンブル行為、経過、依存と結果の実証的研究

BASS(Büro für arbeites-und sozialpolitische Studien)(訳: 労働と社会政策研究所)
スイス連邦ゲーミング委員会および連邦法務局の委任を受けて
Kilian Künzi, Tobias Fritschi, Theres Egger 共著 ベルン 2004年11月15日
日本語訳 平沼由紀子
用語/名称について(訳:)とあるのは意味を訳したもので、正式な用語/名称ではない。

スイス国内におけるカウンセリングやセラピーの広がり

■スイス国内には、ドイツ語圏に99カ所、Ticino州(イタリア語が公用語)に7カ所、フランス語圏に24カ所、gambling problemsを抱える人のためのカウンセリング施設またはセラピー施設が存在する。
我々の調査で、2003年のHAS study(Häfeli/Schneiderによる研究)をおおむね裏づけることができた。
スイス国内全土にわたり、gambling problemsを抱える人々が利用できる、様々なタイプの施設が存在する。
ただし、gambling problemsを専門に扱うサービスについては、十分に行きわたっていない。

■フランス語圏では、とくにJura州でカウンセリング・サービスが不足しており、対策がすでになされつつある。
2002年以来、チューリヒ湖のほとりに Bカジノを擁するSchwyz州でも、同様の不足がみられる。

■gambling problemsを専門に扱うカウンセリング施設や自助グループにおいては、利用者の100%がギャンブル関連の相談であるのに対し、その他のカウンセリングサービスにおいては、同様の相談は利用者の5%のみであった。

■2002年中の、ギャンブルに関連したカウンセリング625件のうち、294件(47%)は依存症専門のカウンセリングサービスを受け、156件(25%)がギャンブル依存症に特化したカウンセリングサービスを、57件(9%)が負債問題専門のカウンセリングサービスを受けた。

■質問表に回答を寄せなかったカウンセリング等施設が、回答してきた施設に比べて約半数のproblem gamblerの相談を受けたと仮定しつつ、ある種のカウンセリングサービス、特に個人経営の精神科医などからは、情報の提供が不可能なことも考慮すると、現実にカウンセリングを受けているproblem gamblerの総数は、回答から得た数字よりも3割増~2倍と推定できる。

これに基づき、2002年は833~1,250人、2003年は1,000~1,500人と推定した。

■ギャンブルの機会の増加、入場禁止措置数の増加等から、近い将来、ギャンブルに関連したカウンセリングやセラピーに対する需要も増すことが予想できる。
カウンセリングやセラピー施設のキャパシティーの拡大は勿論、より専門化された対応が、カウンセラーに求められる。

■カウンセリング中のproblem gamblersの個々のケースを分析すると、全体の3分の2近いケースで、他の社会サービス(負債問題のカウンセリング、自助グループ、RAV=スイスのハローワークなど)を受けている、または必要としている。
ギャンブル依存症のケースが今後、他の分野の施設や社会サービスにもたらす負担も考慮しなければならない。

■専門家へのインタビューから、problem gamblingに関してカウンセリングを受ける/受けない理由は、個人的理由(自分で直す自信の有無、恥、意欲の有無など)、カウンセリングサービスの側の関心の低さ、その他の社会人口学的要素が浮かび上がる。

カジノIRジャパン

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